New Laws in Afghanistan

New Laws in Afghanistan

Kaheld Abou El Fadl, a professor of Islamic law at UCLA and one of the world`s leading authorities on Sharia law, told CNN that there is a rich history of debates about Sharia law and various interpretations of its meaning. The humanitarian crisis is also affecting children`s ability to learn. “Many arrive at school hungry,” one teacher said. It`s hard because as a teacher, I can`t do much for them, because we don`t feed the children at school. The impact of the economic crisis on women and girls is particularly severe, as women and girls find it increasingly difficult to access aid and health care. Taliban restrictions have exacerbated the financial crisis for women. The owner of a company that exports products from women farmers said farmers are no longer allowed to work, the produce cannot be exported, and the farmers she buys from cannot afford transportation costs. “The Islamic Emirate [the Taliban government] does not allow women to work; Even women farmers cannot work in the countryside,” she said. “They used to work with us, but now they all have to stay home.” “Students ask what would happen to them after Grade 6, and we say, `God is good,`” said another teacher. I hope they can continue. University students, many of whom have studied outside Ghazni, have had their classes closed without any information on when or if they can resume their studies.

“All university students like me who left Ghazni for education are forced to return,” said one medical student. “We`re all sitting at home and we don`t know what`s going to happen to us.” During their first term in power, the Taliban regularly inflicted public punishments, including lashes and executions at Kabul`s Ghazi Stadium. The Taliban say the restrictions on women and girls studying are “temporary” and are only in place to ensure that all jobs and learning environments are “safe” for them. “Carefully examine the records of thieves, kidnappers and agitators,” Akhundzada was quoted as saying by Mujahid. Those files in which all the conditions of the Sharia of Hudud and Qisas are met, you are obliged to implement them. It is the judgment of Sharia and my order, which is binding. A financial crisis followed the Taliban seizure of power on 15 September. August, when the economy collapsed and the banking system froze. About 75 percent of the previous government`s budget came from foreign donors, but most stopped helping government agencies and institutions shortly before or after the Taliban came to power. Afghanistan`s central bank, under Taliban control, is cut off from the international banking system and access to the country`s foreign exchange reserves. However, it was not clear what legislative steps, if any, the Directive still needed to go through to be implemented.

Afghanistan`s official Bakhtar news agency described it as a draft law that had been “approved and implemented” by Taliban Supreme Leader Hibatullah Akhundzada. During their previous reign in the 1990s, women were excluded from education and employment. Restrictions on women`s freedom of movement and bodies continue to intensify. In May, the Taliban ordered women to cover their faces in public and ordered them to stay home except in emergencies. Women are prohibited from travelling long distances without male escorts, and unaccompanied women are increasingly denied access to basic services. Women did not hold ministerial positions in the de facto administration, which had also been abolished by the Ministry of Women`s Affairs, effectively eliminating women`s right to political participation. The Taliban also banned girls from attending school after sixth grade, preventing women from doing most of the work outside the home. “The Taliban government has affected our daily lives,” one student said. “When I came to Ghazni, I wore the same clothes as in Kabul and I could walk around the city alone.

But now we have to wear a burqa, and our path to the city is limited. Those who are still working were largely unpaid because health care and education were almost entirely funded by foreign donors whose aid was stopped. The only regularly paid respondent worked for an international non-governmental group. “We haven`t been paid for more than five months,” said one midwife. “It`s very difficult for nurses and service staff to manage because we have no other source of income. Doctors have their own private clinic or health center. Personally, I find it very difficult because I am the breadwinner. By early January, she had still not received her salary. Taliban authorities have also used intimidation to extort money, food and services. “When the Taliban visit a village, they force households to feed them and collect food from people,” said a woman from one village. “The Taliban and their fighters call us in the middle of the night to treat and their patients and families,” a health worker said.

“They come into the hospital with their weapons, it`s hard for doctors and nurses to handle it.” During the group`s first term, the Taliban banned most forms of music as un-Islamic, and in August this year, Afghan folk singer Fawad Andarabi was dragged from his home and killed. Nearly half of the country is acutely hungry, according to the United Nations. An estimated 43 percent of the Afghan population lives on less than one meal a day, with 90 percent of Afghans surveyed citing food as their main need, according to a May report by the International Rescue Committee. What does it mean to have a certain level of security but not have a job, no income, no food, if you don`t feel safe, what kind of security is that?. Human rights activists, journalists and others are in hiding; They don`t feel safe. Wherever we go, we fear for our lives every time. What kind of security is it?. I don`t feel safe at all. Most government employees have lost their jobs or are paid a paltry fee to stay home, while women are also not allowed to travel without male relatives and are required to cover themselves with a burqa or hijab outside the home. Sharia law in Islamic jurisprudence means the “search for the divine will,” El Fadl told CNN.

While it is common in Western and domestic discourse to use Sharia law interchangeably with Islamic law, Sharia is a much broader and all-encompassing concept, according to an explanation from El Fadl`s website. One year after we came to power, we tell stories of women in Afghanistan today, written in their own words. These first-hand, mostly anonymous stories capture the fear, anger and deep sense of loss that permeate Afghan women`s daily lives – and the resilience with which they continue to live them. “These assurances were reiterated after the Taliban came to power in August 2021 that women would enjoy their rights, whether in work, education or society in general. While primary schools are open to girls, teachers have not received their salaries. A primary school teacher who is the main breadwinner for her family of 10 said: “It`s been three months since we got paid. We will teach, but nothing. Her salary was 5,500 Afghans ($46) a month and she had previously topped it up by teaching at a private school, but the private school also stopped paying teachers. She spends 300 to 350 Afghans ($2.50 to $2.90) a month to get to work, money she now takes from her savings or family members.

The security situation in the country has also deteriorated since the group was retaken last year, and the country is increasingly isolated and impoverished. This includes banning films that violate Sharia – or Islamic law – principles and Afghan values, while banning images of men exposing intimate body parts. Despite this lack of clarity, one of the government`s principles is clear: taxes and tax collection have been streamlined and centralized. It is perhaps the only major economic enterprise the Taliban have managed, which completely collapsed and immediately after Western donors withdrew billions in aid when the group took power. In the wake of this economic collapse, humanitarian organizations are now telling us that there are more severely hungry people in Afghanistan than anywhere else in the world. The Taliban have shown that they understand the scale of this crisis, but they have also shown how little they can do to change the final course of the economy or even provide for the Afghan people – let alone rely on significant foreign aid, just like the previous government.